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Manuals Manual Type Part Number: ReleaseDate Model 4299-7 Fixed Rack-Mount Kit Assembly and Mounting Instructions
This document contains the parts list and installation information for products that can be mounted with this rack-mount kit.
User PA-1065E Models 2182 and 2182A Nanovoltmeter User's Manual
Models 2182 and 2182A Nanovoltmeter User's Manual
Primary User 2182A-900-01B Models 2182/2182A Nanovoltmeter Quick Reference Guide, Rev. A
Primary User 2182A-903-01A Model 2182/2182A Nanovoltmeter Service Manual
Technical Documents Document Type ReleaseDate Four Step Error Checker Poster
This printable poster offers insight into errors commonly made when measuring low voltage, low current, low resistance, high resistance, or voltage from a high resistance source. Learn what can cause these errors, and get tips on how to avoid them.
Poster Keithley Low Level Measurements Handbook - 7th Edition
The Keithley Low Level Measurements Handbook is a reference and guide for anyone looking to perform sensitive DC electrical measurements. Scroll down to find the section you need, or download the entire book as a PDF above. Once you click on each of …
Handbook The Emerging Challenges of Nanotechnology Testing
Nanotechnology is an important new area of research that promises significant advances in electronics, materials, biotechnology, alternative energy sources, and dozens of other applications. …
Technical Article Guide to Measuring New Materials and Devices
Handbook Troubleshooting Low Voltage Measurement Problems
Technical Article Discover Today's Solutions for Tomorrow's Nano Characterization Challenges
Brochure New Instruments Can Lock Out Lock-ins
Whitepaper New dG Measurement Methods Reveal Nanodevice Characteristics Faster, at Lower Cost
Technical Article Pulse Testing for Nanoscale Devices
Technical Article New Materials and Devices E-Guide
Brochure Measurement Techniques for Characterizing Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, and Nano-Materials and Devices
Poster Problem: Error in Low Voltage, Low Current Measurements
Technical Article Problem: Errors in Low Resistance Measurements
Technical Article Low Voltage/ Low Resistance Measurements
Product Selector Guide Model 2182A Instrument Specifications
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter. Specifications are the standards against which the 2182A is tested. Upon leaving the factory, the 2182A meets these specifications. Supplemental and …
Specification Precision, Low Current Sources for Device Testing and Characterization
High accuracy, low noise sourcing combined with exceptional ease of use Keithley's new Model 6220 DC Current Source and Model 6221 AC and DC Current Source deliver the high resolution, low noise, low current sourcing you need …
Brochure Problem: Noisy Readings in Low Resistance Measurements
Technical Article Problem: Reading Drift in Low Resistance Measurements
Technical Article Low-Voltage Measurement Techniques
Introduction Electronics are continuing to shrink as consumers demand faster, more feature-rich products in ever-smaller form factors. Because of their small sizes, these electronic components usually have limited power handling …
Technical Article Making Precision Low Voltage and Low Resistance Measurements E-Handbook
Fact Sheet Making Better Fuel Cells: Through-Plane Resistivity Measurement of Graphite-Filled Bipolar Plates
Fuel cells directly convert the chemical energy in methanol or hydrogen fuel into electricity. They hold great promise as power sources because they deliver more energy than batteries of the same size and weight and their only …
Whitepaper Unraveling Fuel Cell Electrical Measurements
Technical Article Keithley Instrumentation for Electrochemical Test Methods and Applications
With more than 60 years of measurement expertise, Keithley Instruments is a world leader in advanced electronic test instrumentation. Our customers are scientists and engineers in a wide range of research and industrial …
Application Note SOLUTIONS FOR SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH
Brochure Solutions for Production Testing of Connectors
Application Note Characterizing Nanoscale Devices with Differential Conductive Measurements
Technical Article Achieving Accurate and Reliable Resistance Measurements in Low Power and Low Voltage Applications
Whitepaper Automatic Resistance Measurements on High Temperature Superconductors
Application Note Hall Effect Measurements in Materials Characterization
Hall effect measurements have been valuable tools for material characterization since Edwin Hall discovered the phenomenon in 1879. Essentially, the Hall effect can be observed when the combination of a magnetic field …
Whitepaper AC Versus DC Measurement Methods for Low-power Nanotech and Other Sensitive Devices
AC versus DC Measurement Methods for Low-power Nanotech and Other Sensitive Devices Sensitive Measurement Needs Researchers today must measure mate-rial and device characteristics that involve very small currents and voltages. …
Technical Article How to Select the Right Temperature Sensor
Introduction The most widely measured physical parameter is temperature. Whether in process industry applications or in laboratory settings, accurate temperature measurements are a critical part of success. Accurate …
Technical Article Applications Guide - Techniques for Multi-Channel Testing and Data Acquisition
Fact Sheet Advances in Electrical Measurements for Nanotechnology E-Handbook
Fact Sheet Advances in Electrical Measurements for Nanotechnology
Handbook #200 Understanding Low Voltage Measurements
Application Note #2615 Determining Resistivity and Conductivity Type using a Four-Point Collinear Probe and the Model 6221 Current Source
Application Note #2611 Low-Level Pulsed Electrical Characterization with the Model 6221/2182A Combination
Application Note Basics of Temperature Measurement: Thermocouples
Technical Article Basics of Temperature Measurement: Thermistors
Technical Article An Improved Method for Differential Conductance Measurements
Introduction As modern electronics continue to shrink, researchers are increasingly looking to nano technology as the basis for the next breakthrough in device size and power consumption. Indeed, as semiconductor structures …
Software Document Type Part Number: ReleaseDate 2182A-C08 Firmware Release Package
Model 2182A Version C08 Firmware. Contains the 2182A-C08.x firmware image for use with Flash Wizard to upgrade a 2182A Instrument. Customer release notes are also included.
Firmware 2182A-FRP-C08 2182A-C06 Firmware Release Package
Contains the 2182A-C06.x firmware image for use with Flash Wizard to upgrade a 2182A Instrument. Customer release notes are also included.
Firmware 2182A-FRP-C06 Model 2182A Firmware Version C02
Model 2182A Version C02 Firmware and Release Notes
FAQS FAQ ID Ohms: How do you decide whether to use a two-probe method or a four-probe method for resistance?
The decision will depend on how much lead resistance is present in the leads, how much lead resistance can be tolerated, and the application. A 4-wire ohms measurement bypasses the voltage drop in the test leads by bringing two high impedance voltage …
71256 Ohms: Which products are recommended for measuring in the range of 2 - 50 micro-ohms?
The best solution involves two instruments, a Keithley Model 2400 SourceMeter instrument for sourcing current and a Keithley Model 2182 Nanovoltmeter for measuring volts using an alternating polarity technique. If the device under test can tolerate …
70821 Ohms: What kind of connections are recommended for a low resistance measurement?
With low resistance measurements, it's important to avoid any connections that increase thermoelectric voltages that can cause errors. Remember that every time test leads or other cables are hooked up to a different connection, an unwanted …
70191 How to configure the Model 6220/6221 and 2182A for Delta Mode?
The Keithley Models 6220 and 6221 Current Sources are designed to work with the Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter to measure very low resistances. A good method of doing this is called the Delta Method as described in the Keithley Low Level Measurements …
783018 Specs: What is CMRR (Common Mode Rejection Ratio)?
CMRR is the ratio of voltage applied to BOTH HI and LO terminals to the DC errors indicated due to the AC. More detail can be found in Low Level Measurements or the Keithley catalog.
71006 Specs: How Can I Apply an Accuracy Specification on a Data Sheet to my Specific Measurement?
The answer is in a downloadable file. Please click the link below.
69826 If you have a bent coax cable, but it is not being moved, can it still generate current?
If the bent coax is under significant stress, then it is much more susceptible to vibrations than if it were relaxed. However, if the amount of movement is really zero, then the current generated at the moment of bending will die down in a few hours …
70471 Remote Operation: Front panel push buttons do not work when operating in DDC mode?
Why don't the front panel controls of my instrument work properly when it is operating in DDC mode? Most current Keithley instruments are controlled remotely using SCPI commands. SCPI is an acronym for Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments …
70036 Amps: Which current source do you recommend to use with the Model 2182 Nanovoltmeter?
The most appropriate current source will depend on the current needed. We suggest the Keithley Model 2400 SourceMeter instrument as a starting point. If higher currents or pulsed currents up to 10A are needed, consider the Model 2420, 2425, and 2430 …
71001 Troubleshooting: How do I limit ground loops?
The preferred method for reducing ground loops is to ground the measurement circuit in only one place. The most common problem is that Measurement LO input of the meter is connected to ground at the instrument, and ground is connected to the circuit …
70556 Specs: What are the effects on accuracy due to possible deterioration within calibration periods?
The measurement uncertainty will increase as the instrument deteriorates within the calibration period. However, this would not be apparent until the instrument is calibrated. This would make it necessary to review manufacturing records to track down …
70371 Specs: What is pumpout current and when might it pose a problem for my measurements?
Product(s): Nanovoltmeters:2182 Digital Multimeters: 2000, 2001, 2002, 2010, 2700, 2701, 2750 Question:What is pumpout current and when might it pose a problem for my measurements? Answer:Pumpout current is a small …
71821 How to configure the Model 2450/2460 for Delta Mode Measurements using Model 2182A nanovoltmeter?
A large source of error when making low resistance measurements (e.g. 1 ohm) is thermal EMFs in the circuit. A technique called Delta Mode reduces the thermal EMFs in the circuit as described in the Keithley Low Level Measurements Handbook. The delta …
778816 Why do I measure a different value between channel 1 and channel 2 on my 2182A?
When measuring the same voltage source, if you notice a difference in reported voltage between channel 1 and channel 2 of your nanovoltmeter, you might be seeing the effects of pumpout current. This effect is significant when measuring voltages <1V …
783015 Why do physical movements of cables create hundreds of picoamps of current?
There are several ways that cables can generate error currents. First, the cable materials can generate currents similar to the way a piezo-electric crystal can generate charge. Second, friction between the concentric layers of a cable (coax) can …