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PA4000 Power Analyzer, Datasheet

PA4000 Datasheet

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PA4000 Datasheet



Tektronix PA4000 Power Analyzers deliver highly accurate, multi-channel power, energy, and efficiency measurements. Precisely-matched inputs, unique Spiral Shunt™ technology, and advanced signal processing deliver high accuracy even with highly modulated waveforms and crest factors as high as 10. The versatile PA4000 offers comprehensive power measurements. Dual current shunts provide optimal resolution from microwatts to kilowatts. Harmonics analysis up to the 100thharmonic, and motor analysis with torque and speed inputs are included in the standard instrument. Every PA4000 comes with multiple PC interfaces, PC software, and USB flash drive support to help you collect and analyze data.

Key features
  • 1 to 4 Input Modules allows several configurations to match your application

  • High measurement accuracy of 0.01% (basic voltage & current accuracy) for demanding test requirements

  • Dual internal current shunts for each module maximize accuracy for high- and low-current measurements

  • Unique Spiral ShuntTMdesign maintains stability over variations in current, temperature, etc. (patent applied for)

  • Proprietary frequency detection algorithms ensure rock-solid frequency tracking even on noisy waveforms

  • Application-specific test modes simplify instrument setup and reduce the likelihood of user error

  • Easy data export to USB flash drive or remote PC software, for reporting and/or remote control

  • Many standard features such as comm ports and harmonic analysis eliminate costly upgrade options
  • Power conversion

  • Power generation

  • Inverters

  • Motor drives

  • Electrical propulsion

  • UPS

  • Frequency converters

  • Electric and hybrid vehicle

  • High-efficiency lighting

  • Consumer electronics

  • Standby power

Flexible voltage and current input choices to fit your application

The PA4000 is the only instrument of its kind to feature both high- and low-range internal current shunts in each input module. The 30-Amp shunt is perfect for many applications and can accept up to 200 A peak, but for measuring low-current devices, the 1 A shunt provides increased resolution and accuracy for measurements down into the microamp range. For measuring currents over 30 Amps, a selection of matching external current transducers are available in several styles, including high-accuracy transducers up to 1000 A.

The PA4000's voltage inputs can accept up to 600 VRMS, 2000 Vpeak, continuous.


PA4000 Rear Panel - Input Modules on a 3-channel instrument

Unique Spiral Shunt™ technology (patent applied for)

The PA4000 employs an innovative Spiral Shunt design that ensures stable, linear response over a wide range of input current levels, ambient temperatures, crest factors, and other variables. This new design is superior to other shunt technologies and contributes to the instrument's reliable accuracy and repeatability over a wide range of signal conditions common in today's power conversion technologies. The spiral construction not only minimizes stray inductance (for optimum high frequency performance) but also provides for high overload capability and improved thermal stability.


Spiral Shunt for 30 A input

Spiral Shunt for 1 A input

Application-specific test modes

Some applications require special instrument settings to ensure proper measurements. The PA4000 simplifies setup for these applications by automatically choosing instrument settings and parameters that are optimized for each type of measurement application, resulting in more reliable measurement results with less opportunity for user setup error.


Selection of application-specific test modes.

PWM motor drive mode

PWM motor mode is designed to overcome the difficulties associated with making measurements on the complex waveforms commonly found on the motor drives. High frequency sampling is combined with digital filtering to reject the carrier frequency and extract the motor frequency while still using prefiltered data for power parameters

Standby power mode

Driven by consumer demand and energy efficiency regulations (such as ENERGY STAR), there is an ever-increasing need to measure power consumption of products while they are in standby mode. One of the most widely used standards for measurement is IEC 62301. Part of this standard requires the measurement of power over a prolonged period of time without missing any short duration power events. The PA4000 standby power mode provides continuous sampling of voltage and current to produce an accurate Watts measurement over the user specified period.

Ballast mode

Ballast mode synchronizes measurements for highly modulated electronic ballast waveforms. In modern electronic lighting ballasts, it is often difficult to make accurate measurements because the output signals are high frequency waveforms that are heavily modulated by the power frequency. Ballast mode provides a way of locking the measurement period to the power frequency.

Integrator mode

Integrator mode is used to provide measurements for determining energy consumption (Watt-hours, Ampere-hours, etc.). In addition, for certain parameters, average values are also available.

PWRVIEW PC software for the PA4000 Power Analyzers

PWRVIEW is a supporting software application for Windows PCs that compliments and extends the functionality of the PA4000. PWRVIEW enables you to do the following:

  • Communicate with PA4000 over any of the instrument's comm ports
  • Change instrument settings remotely
  • Transfer, view, and save measurement data in real-time from the instrument, including waveforms, harmonic bar charts, and plots
  • Log measurement data over a period of time
  • Communicate with and download data from multiple PA4000 instruments simultaneously
  • Create formulae for the calculation of power conversion efficiency and other values
  • Export measurement data to .csv format for import into other applications
  • Automate instrument setup, data collection, and report generation for key applications with just a few clicks, using wizard-driven interfaces
  • Perform automated full compliance testing for Low Power Standby per IEC62301, Edition 2 
  • Other test automation will be added with future releases



Standard harmonics analysis

The PA4000 features harmonics analysis to the 100thharmonic as a standard feature. Harmonics, THD, and related measurements can all be analyzed simultaneously with other power parameters. Accurate measurement of harmonic amplitude, phase, and harmonic power are included, which are critical to the analysis of losses in rotating machinery.


Harmonics bar chart display mode.

Standard communication ports

The PA4000 comes standard with USB, Ethernet, and RS-232 communication ports, plus a front-mounted USB port for data export to a flash drive. GPIB is available as a factory-installed option.


PA4000 rear panel, with communication ports


All specifications are guaranteed unless noted otherwise.


All measurements taken at 1 MHz with a sample rate of 1 Megasample/second.

Measurement accuracy specifications are valid up to a Crest Factor of 10.

The recommended calibration interval is one year.

Available measurements
VRMS - Volts RMS VDF - Volts Distortion Factor
ARMS - Amps RMS VTIF - Volts Telephone Influence Factor
WATT - Watts ATHD - Amps Total Harmonic Distortion
VA - Volt-Amps ADF - Amps Distortion Factor
VAR - Volt-Amps Reactive ATIF - Amps Telephone Influence Factor
FRQ - Frequency VF - Fundamental Volts rms
PF - Power factor AF - Fundamental Amps rms
VPK+ - Volts peak (positive) IMP - Impedance
VPK- - Volts peak (negative) RES - Resistance
APK+ - Amps peak (positive) REA - Reactance
APK- - Amps peak (negative) HR - Integrator time
VDC - Volts DC WHR - Watt Hours
ADC - Amps DC VAH - VA Hours
VRMN - Volts rectified mean VRH - VAr Hours
ARMN - Amps rectified mean AHR - Amp Hours
VCF - Voltage crest factor WAV - Average Watts
ACF - Current crest factor PFAV - Average Power Factor
VTHD - Volts Total Harmonic Distortion CVAR - Correction VArs
Voltage and current ranges
Voltage ranges
2000 Vpeak, 600 Vpeak, 500 Vpeak, 200 Vpeak, 100 Vpeak, 50 Vpeak, 20 Vpeak, 10 Vpeak, 5 Vpeak, 2 Vpeak
Current ranges (30 A shunt)
200 Apeak, 100 Apeak, 50 Apeak, 20 Apeak, 10 Apeak, 5 Apeak, 2 Apeak, 1 Apeak, 0.5 Apeak, 0.2 Apeak, 0.1 Apeak
Current ranges (1 A shunt)
5 Apeak, 2.5 Apeak, 1.25 Apeak, 0.5 Apeak, 0.25 Apeak, 0.125 Apeak, 0.05 Apeak, 0.025 Apeak, 0.0125 Apeak, 0.005 Apeak, 0.0025 Apeak
Current ranges (external shunt)
3 Vpeak, 1.5 Vpeak, 0.75 Vpeak, 0.3 Vpeak, 0.15 Vpeak, 0.075 Vpeak, 0.03 Vpeak, 0.015 Vpeak, 0.0075 Vpeak, 0.003 Vpeak, 0.0015 Vpeak
Measurement accuracy - voltage and current
Voltage accuracy, VRMS ( 45 Hz - 850 Hz ) 1
± 0.01% of Reading ± 0.04% of Range
Voltage accuracy, VRMS ( 10 Hz - 45 Hz, 850 Hz - 1 MHz )

± 0.05% of Reading ± 0.05% of Range ± (0.02*F)% of Reading ± 0.02 V (typical)

Voltage accuracy, DC
± 0.05% of Reading ± 0.1% of Range ± 0.05 V
Voltage accuracy, Vrmn
± 0.2% of Reading ± 0.1% of Range ± 0.1 V
Effect of common mode (typical)

600 V, 60 Hz < 10 mV

100 V, 100 kHz < 50 mV

Current accuracy, ARMS ( 45 Hz - 850 Hz ) 1

± 0.01% of Reading ± 0.04% of Range

Current accuracy, ARMS ( 10 Hz - 45 Hz, 850 Hz - 1 MHz )

± 0.05% of Reading ± 0.05% of Range ± (0.02*F)% of Reading ± (20 µV/Zext) (typical)

Current accuracy, DC

± 0.05% of Reading ± 0.1% of Range ± (50 µV/Zext)

Current accuracy, Armn

± 0.2% of Reading ± 0.1% of Range ± (100 µV/Zext)

1These specifications apply under the following conditions:

  • Volts = 10 V range or higher
  • 30 A shunt = 0.5 A range or higher
  • 1 A shunt = 0.025 A range or higher
  • Signal > 30% of range
  • Watts accuracy @ PF = 1 


Measurement accuracy - power
Watts accuracy (45 - 850 Hz) 1

± 0.02% of Reading ± 0.06% of Range

VA accuracy (45 - 850 Hz) 1

± 0.02% of Reading ± 0.06% of Range

VAR accuracy


PF Accuracy

Cos θ -cos [ θ± ( Vh1ph.err± Ah1ph.err)] ± 0.001 

Measurement accuracy - Harmonic magnitude and phase 1
Voltage harmonics (45 Hz - 850 Hz) (typical for 10 Hz to 45 Hz and 850 Hz to 1 MHz)
± 0.08% of Reading ± 0.08% of Range ± (0.02*F)% of Reading ± 0.02 V
Voltage harmonics phase (45 Hz - 850 Hz) (typical for 10 Hz to 45 Hz and 850 Hz to 1 MHz)
± 0.025 ± [ 0.005 * Vrange / Vreading )] ± (0.1 / Vrange) ± ( 0.002 *F )
Current harmonics (45 Hz - 850 Hz) (typical for 10 Hz to 45 Hz and 850 Hz to 1 MHz)
± 0.08% of Reading ± 0.08% of Range ± (0.02*F)% of Reading ± (20 µV /Zext)
Current harmonics phase (45 Hz - 850 Hz) (typical for 10 Hz to 45 Hz and 850 Hz to 1 MHz)
± 0.025 ± [0.005 * Arange / Areading)] ± (0.001 / Arange * Zext)) ± (0.002 *F)

1F is the frequency measured in kHz. In the case of harmonics, F is the harmonic frequency.

Zextis the shunt impedance (0.6 Ω for 1 A shunt, 9.375 mΩ for 30 A shunt). It is assumed that the waveform measured is a sine wave.

Measurement conditions during calibration: Instrument default settings unless otherwise stated, Sine waves applied to V and I inputs, 30 minute warm-up, Temperature 23 °C ±5 °C.


Physical characteristics
Height 13.2 cm. 5.2 in.
Width 42 cm. 16.5 in.
Depth 31 cm. 12.5 in.
Net (without lead set) 8.8 kg 19.5 lb.
Storage -20  C to +60  C
Operating C to +40  C

Ordering information

PA4000 models

A PA4000 must be ordered with one of the following options:

Opt. 1CH
One input module installed
Opt. 2CH
Two input modules installed
Opt. 3CH
Three input modules installed
Opt. 4CH
Four input modules installed
Standard accessories
Instrument options
GPIB Interface
Opt. 15V
Power Output for External Current Transducers
Language options
No Language Options - Standard documentation CD includes user manual in English, French, German, Spanish, Japanese, Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Korean, and Russian.
Power cord options
Opt. A0
North America power plug (115 V, 60 Hz)
Opt. A1
Universal Euro power plug (220 V, 50 Hz)
Opt. A2
United Kingdom power plug (240 V, 50 Hz)
Opt. A3
Australia power plug (240 V, 50 Hz)
Opt. A4
North America power plug (240 V, 50 Hz)
Opt. A5
Switzerland power plug (220 V, 50 Hz)
Opt. A6
Japan power plug (100 V, 50/60 Hz)
Opt. A10
China power plug (50 Hz)
Opt. A11
India power plug (50 Hz)
Opt. A12
Brazil power plug (60 Hz)
Opt. A99
No power cord
Service options
Opt. C3
Calibration Service 3 Years
Opt. C5
Calibration Service 5 Years
Opt. D1
Calibration Data Report
Opt. D3
Calibration Data Report 3 Years (with Opt. C3)
Opt. D5
Calibration Data Report 5 Years (with Opt. C5)
Opt. G3
Complete Care 3 Years (includes loaner, scheduled calibration, and more)
Opt. G5
Complete Care 5 Years (includes loaner, scheduled calibration, and more)
Recommended accessories
Fixed-core current transducer, AC/DC, high accuracy, up to 60 A
Fixed-core current transducer, AC/DC, high accuracy, up to 200 A
Fixed-core current transducer, AC/DC, high accuracy, up to 400 A
Fixed-core current transducer, AC/DC, high accuracy, up to 1000 A
Fixed-core current transducer, AC/DC, Hall effect, up to 100 A
Fixed-core current transducer, AC/DC, Hall effect, up to 200 A
Fixed-core current transducer, AC/DC, Hall effect, up to 500 A
Fixed-core current transducer, AC/DC, Hall effect, up to 1000 A
Current clamp, 1 A - 200 A, for Tektronix Power Analyzers, AC only
Current clamp, 0.1 A - 1200 A, for Tektronix Power Analyzers, AC only
Replacement lead set for Tektronix Power Analyzers (One channel lead set)

See Accessories datasheet # 55W-29381-0 for more detailed descriptions.