Keithley Ultra-Low Resistance Configurations
When connected, the Model 2182A and Model 6220 or 6221 can be operated like a single instrument. The 2182A/622X combination is ideal for resistance measurements, pulsed I-V measurements, and differential conductance measurements, providing significant advantages over other solutions. The 2182A/622X combination is also well suited for many nanotechnology applications because it can measure resistance without dissipating much power in the device under test (DUT), which would otherwise invalidate results or even destroy the DUT.
|Measure resistances from 10nΩ to 100MΩ||Covers an extremely wide measurement range and specializes in ultra-low resistance measurements for characterizing high conductivity materials, nanomaterials, and superconducting materials.|
|Synchronized current-pulsed source and measurement times as short as 50µs||Limits power dissipation in components such as nanodevices and nanomaterials that can be easily destroyed unless tested at very low power levels.|
|Delta mode current reversal, resistance measurement technique||Makes accurate ultra-low resistance measurements by eliminating the effects of thermal offsets and reduces noise down to 30nV p-p noise (typical) for one reading. Multiple readings can be averaged for greater noise reduction.|
|Differential conductance measurement||Offers speeds ten times faster and lower noise than other conductance measurement techniques. Good measurements are made without the need to average the results of multiple sweeps.|
|Nanovoltmeter and current source interface to work together seamlessly||Both instruments can be operated like a single instrument when making differential conductance and resistance measurements.|
|Delta, differential conductance, and pulse modes generate minimal current transients||Allows characterizing devices that can be easily disrupted by current spikes.|
|Keithley Instrumentation for Electrochemical Test Methods and Applications|
This Application Note discusses electrochemistry disciplines in which Keithley instrumentation is used.
|SOLUTIONS FOR SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH||Brochure|
|#2615 Determining Resistivity and Conductivity Type using a Four-Point Collinear Probe and the Model 6221 Current Source|
This application note explains how to measure resistivity and determine conductivity type of semiconductor materials with a four-point collinear probe and the 6221 DC and AC Current Source.
|Keithley Pulse Solutions|
This guide is designed to help you identify Keithley solutions that include pulse sources that might suit your application's requirements.
|An Improved Method for Differential Conductance Measurements|
Keithley's approach to differential conductance, a four-wire, source current/measure voltage technique, uses the 6220 and 6221 Current Sources and 2182A Nanovoltmeter. The current sources combine the DC and AC components into one source, with no need to do a secondary measure of the current, because its output is much less dependent on the changing device impedance
|Achieving Accurate and Reliable Resistance Measurements in Low Power and Low Voltage Applications|
There are many factors that make low voltage measurements difficult. This paper discusses techniques to eliminate thermoelectric voltages to allow more accurate resistance measurements, including a three-step delta measurement method for low power/low voltage applications.
|Hall Effect Measurements in Materials Characterization||Whitepaper|
|New Instruments Can Lock Out Lock-ins|
With modern instruments like the Keithley 6220 Current Source and 2182A Nanovoltmeter, the DC reversal method requires less power while providing excellent low-noise results. This combination is optimal for low frequencies (0.1–24Hz,) allowing measurements to be made much faster than with a lock-in amplifier.
|Applications Guide - Techniques for Multi-Channel Testing and Data Acquisition||Fact Sheet|