Keithley Ultra-Low Resistance Configurations

Keithley Ultra-Low Resistance Configurations

When connected, the Model 2182A and Model 6220 or 6221 can be operated like a single instrument. The 2182A/622X combination is ideal for resistance measurements, pulsed I-V measurements, and differential conductance measurements, providing significant advantages over other solutions. The 2182A/622X combination is also well suited for many nanotechnology applications because it can measure resistance without dissipating much power in the device under test (DUT), which would otherwise invalidate results or even destroy the DUT.

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Keithley Ultra-Low Resistance Configurations Series 6200/2182A

Features

Benefits

Measure resistances from 10nΩ to 100MΩ Covers an extremely wide measurement range and specializes in ultra-low resistance measurements for characterizing high conductivity materials, nanomaterials, and superconducting materials.
Synchronized current-pulsed source and measurement times as short as 50µs Limits power dissipation in components such as nanodevices and nanomaterials that can be easily destroyed unless tested at very low power levels.
Delta mode current reversal, resistance measurement technique Makes accurate ultra-low resistance measurements by eliminating the effects of thermal offsets and reduces noise down to 30nV p-p noise (typical) for one reading. Multiple readings can be averaged for greater noise reduction.
Differential conductance measurement Offers speeds ten times faster and lower noise than other conductance measurement techniques. Good measurements are made without the need to average the results of multiple sweeps.
Nanovoltmeter and current source interface to work together seamlessly Both instruments can be operated like a single instrument when making differential conductance and resistance measurements.
Delta, differential conductance, and pulse modes generate minimal current transients Allows characterizing devices that can be easily disrupted by current spikes.

Models

Model Voltage Resistance Source PC Interface List Price
6220/2182A

1nV-100V
1nV-100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

DC: ±10fA – 100mA RS-232, GPIB US $7,560

Configure & Quote
6221/2182A

1nV – 100V
1nV – 100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

DC: ±10fA – 100mA
AC: 4pAp-p – 200mAp-p

RS-232, GPIB, LAN US $8,850

Configure & Quote
Model6220/2182A
List PriceUS $7,560
VoltageResistanceVoltage
1nV-100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

1nV-100V

SourcePC Interface
DC: ±10fA – 100mARS-232, GPIB
Model6221/2182A
List PriceUS $8,850
VoltageResistanceVoltage
1nV – 100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

1nV – 100V

SourcePC Interface

DC: ±10fA – 100mA
AC: 4pAp-p – 200mAp-p

RS-232, GPIB, LAN

Model Voltage Resistance Source PC Interface List Price
6220/2182A 1nV-100V 1nV-100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

DC: ±10fA – 100mA RS-232, GPIB US $7,560
Configure & Quote
6221/2182A 1nV – 100V 1nV – 100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

DC: ±10fA – 100mA
AC: 4pAp-p – 200mAp-p

RS-232, GPIB, LAN US $8,850
Configure & Quote
Model6220/2182A
List PriceUS $7,560
VoltageResistanceVoltage
1nV-100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

1nV-100V
SourcePC Interface
DC: ±10fA – 100mARS-232, GPIB
Model6221/2182A
List PriceUS $8,850
VoltageResistanceVoltage
1nV – 100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

1nV – 100V
SourcePC Interface

DC: ±10fA – 100mA
AC: 4pAp-p – 200mAp-p

RS-232, GPIB, LAN
Data SheetAccessoryDescription
7009-5 5 FT. SHIELDED RS-232 CABLE
Keithley Instrumentation for Electrochemical Test Methods and Applications
This application note discusses a variety of electrochemical applications, including voltammetry, low and high resistivity measurements, battery test, potentiometry, electrodeposition, electrical device characterization, and other tests that involve…
Literature number: 1KW-60158-1
Application Note 25 Apr 2018
Keithley Instruments Safety Precautions
This document contains safety information for Keithley Instruments products.
Part number: 071341101
User
Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter
Datasheet
New Instruments Can Lock Out Lock-ins
With modern instruments like the Keithley 6220 Current Source and 2182A Nanovoltmeter, the DC reversal method requires less power while providing excellent low-noise results. This combination is optimal for low frequencies (0.1–24Hz,) allowing…
Whitepaper 08 Aug 2017
#2615 Determining Resistivity and Conductivity Type using a Four-Point Collinear Probe and the Model 6221 Current Source
This application note explains how to measure resistivity and determine conductivity type of semiconductor materials with a four-point collinear probe and the 6221 DC and AC Current Source.
Application Note 08 Aug 2017
The Emerging Challenges of Nanotechnology Testing
Nanotechnology is an important new area of research that promises significant advances in electronics, materials, biotechnology, alternative energy sources, and dozens of other applications.  The ability to create accurate and repeatable measurements at…
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
Pulse Testing for Nanoscale Devices
Pulse testing provides a key capability for the investigation of nanomaterials, nanoelectronics, and today’s semiconducting devices.
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
AC Versus DC Measurement Methods for Low-power Nanotech and Other Sensitive Devices
With modern current sources and nanovoltmeters, the DC reversal method requires less power while providing excellent low-noise results. This combination is optimal for low frequencies (0.1–24Hz,) allowing measurements to be made much faster than with a…
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
Problem: Errors in Low Resistance Measurements
In low resistance measurements, the resistance of the test leads can be a significant fraction of the resistance to be measured, or can even exceed it, and can cause measurement errors.
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
New dG Measurement Methods Reveal Nanodevice Characteristics Faster, at Lower Cost
AC current sources are now available that can quickly characterize the differential conductance of nanoscale devices, including those that exhibit negative dG. When combined with a sensitive nanovoltmeter, these two instruments eliminate the need for…
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
Problem: Noisy Readings in Low Resistance Measurements
The most common cause of noisy low resistance measurement is magnetic interference.
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
Problem: Reading Drift in Low Resistance Measurements
Thermoelectric voltages are the most common cause of reading drift in low resistance measurements. They are caused by differences in temperature between different parts of the measurement circuit
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
An Improved Method for Differential Conductance Measurements
Keithley's approach to differential conductance, a four-wire, source current/measure voltage technique, uses the 6220 and 6221 Current Sources and 2182A Nanovoltmeter.  The current sources combine the DC and AC components into one source, with no need to…
Whitepaper 08 Aug 2017
Unraveling Fuel Cell Electrical Measurements
Anyone involved in the design, manufacture, application. or repair of fuel cells or fuel cell-powered devices needs cell data that is available only through direct electrical measurements. When properly interpreted, this data not only provides an…
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
Achieving Accurate and Reliable Resistance Measurements in Low Power and Low Voltage Applications
There are many factors that make low voltage measurements difficult.  This paper discusses techniques to eliminate thermoelectric voltages to allow more accurate resistance measurements, including a three-step delta measurement method for low power/low…
Whitepaper 08 Aug 2017
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