Keithley Ultra-Low Resistance Configurations

Keithley Ultra-Low Resistance Configurations

When connected, the Model 2182A and Model 6220 or 6221 can be operated like a single instrument. The 2182A/622X combination is ideal for resistance measurements, pulsed I-V measurements, and differential conductance measurements, providing significant advantages over other solutions. The 2182A/622X combination is also well suited for many nanotechnology applications because it can measure resistance without dissipating much power in the device under test (DUT), which would otherwise invalidate results or even destroy the DUT.

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Base Price
US $7,450 - US $8,720
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Keithley Ultra-Low Resistance Configurations Series 6200/2182A

Features

Benefits

Measure resistances from 10nΩ to 100MΩ Covers an extremely wide measurement range and specializes in ultra-low resistance measurements for characterizing high conductivity materials, nanomaterials, and superconducting materials.
Synchronized current-pulsed source and measurement times as short as 50µs Limits power dissipation in components such as nanodevices and nanomaterials that can be easily destroyed unless tested at very low power levels.
Delta mode current reversal, resistance measurement technique Makes accurate ultra-low resistance measurements by eliminating the effects of thermal offsets and reduces noise down to 30nV p-p noise (typical) for one reading. Multiple readings can be averaged for greater noise reduction.
Differential conductance measurement Offers speeds ten times faster and lower noise than other conductance measurement techniques. Good measurements are made without the need to average the results of multiple sweeps.
Nanovoltmeter and current source interface to work together seamlessly Both instruments can be operated like a single instrument when making differential conductance and resistance measurements.
Delta, differential conductance, and pulse modes generate minimal current transients Allows characterizing devices that can be easily disrupted by current spikes.

Models

Model Voltage Resistance Source PC Interface List Price
6220/2182A

1nV-100V
1nV-100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

DC: ±10fA – 100mA RS-232, GPIB US $7,450

Configure & Quote
6221/2182A

1nV – 100V
1nV – 100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

DC: ±10fA – 100mA
AC: 4pAp-p – 200mAp-p

RS-232, GPIB, LAN US $8,720

Configure & Quote
Model6220/2182A
List PriceUS $7,450
VoltageResistanceVoltage
1nV-100V<p>10nΩ - 100MΩ</p>1nV-100V
SourcePC Interface
DC: ±10fA – 100mARS-232, GPIB
Model6221/2182A
List PriceUS $8,720
VoltageResistanceVoltage
1nV – 100V<p>10nΩ - 100MΩ</p>1nV – 100V
SourcePC Interface
<p>DC: ±10fA – 100mA<br>AC: 4pAp-p – 200mAp-p</p>RS-232, GPIB, LAN
Model Voltage Resistance Source PC Interface List Price
6220/2182A 1nV-100V 1nV-100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

DC: ±10fA – 100mA RS-232, GPIB US $7,450
Configure & Quote
6221/2182A 1nV – 100V 1nV – 100V

10nΩ - 100MΩ

DC: ±10fA – 100mA
AC: 4pAp-p – 200mAp-p

RS-232, GPIB, LAN US $8,720
Configure & Quote
Model6220/2182A
List PriceUS $7,450
VoltageResistanceVoltage
1nV-100V<p>10nΩ - 100MΩ</p>1nV-100V
SourcePC Interface
DC: ±10fA – 100mARS-232, GPIB
Model6221/2182A
List PriceUS $8,720
VoltageResistanceVoltage
1nV – 100V<p>10nΩ - 100MΩ</p>1nV – 100V
SourcePC Interface
<p>DC: ±10fA – 100mA<br>AC: 4pAp-p – 200mAp-p</p>RS-232, GPIB, LAN
Data SheetAccessoryDescription
7009-5 5 FT. SHIELDED RS-232 CABLE
TitleTypeDate
Keithley Instrumentation for Electrochemical Test Methods and Applications

This Application Note discusses electrochemistry disciplines in which Keithley instrumentation is used.
Application Note 04 Dec 2017
Keithley Instruments Safety Precautions
This document contains safety information for Keithley Instruments products.
Part number: 071341101
User 28 Aug 2017
Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter
Datasheet 08 Aug 2017
The Emerging Challenges of Nanotechnology Testing

Nanotechnology is an important new area of research that promises significant advances in electronics, materials, biotechnology, alternative energy sources, and dozens of other applications.  The ability to create accurate and repeatable…
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
AC Versus DC Measurement Methods for Low-power Nanotech and Other Sensitive Devices

With modern current sources and nanovoltmeters, the DC reversal method requires less power while providing excellent low-noise results. This combination is optimal for low frequencies (0.1–24Hz,) allowing measurements to be made much faster than…
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
New dG Measurement Methods Reveal Nanodevice Characteristics Faster, at Lower Cost

AC current sources are now available that can quickly characterize the differential conductance of nanoscale devices, including those that exhibit negative dG. When combined with a sensitive nanovoltmeter, these two instruments eliminate the need…
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
#2615 Determining Resistivity and Conductivity Type using a Four-Point Collinear Probe and the Model 6221 Current Source

This application note explains how to measure resistivity and determine conductivity type of semiconductor materials with a four-point collinear probe and the 6221 DC and AC Current Source.
Application Note 08 Aug 2017
Pulse Testing for Nanoscale Devices

Pulse testing provides a key capability for the investigation of nanomaterials, nanoelectronics, and today’s semiconducting devices.
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
An Improved Method for Differential Conductance Measurements

Keithley's approach to differential conductance, a four-wire, source current/measure voltage technique, uses the 6220 and 6221 Current Sources and 2182A Nanovoltmeter.  The current sources combine the DC and AC components into one source, with no…
Whitepaper 08 Aug 2017
Problem: Errors in Low Resistance Measurements

In low resistance measurements, the resistance of the test leads can be a significant fraction of the resistance to be measured, or can even exceed it, and can cause measurement errors.
Technical Article 08 Aug 2017
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